Countries currently subject to a recommendation to suspend trade

As CITES uses trade measures for its implementation, one recommendation for improving the effectiveness of the Convention is a temporary suspension of trade. Recommendations to suspend trade in specimens of CITES-listed species are made by the Conference of the Parties and the Standing Committee. A recommendation to suspend trade provides a period of time during which the relevant country can move from non-compliance to compliance by inter alia making progress in the enactment of adequate legislation, combating and reducing illegal trade, submitting missing annual reports or responding to specific recommendations of the Standing Committee concerning the implementation of Article IV of the Convention in the context of the Review of Significant Trade. Recommendations to suspend trade are withdrawn immediately upon a country’s return to compliance.

At the request of CITES Parties and to assist implementation of the Convention, the Secretariat has developed a table of recommendations to suspend trade that are currently in force. The table shows the countries affected by the recommendation, the Notification to the Parties containing the recommendation, the basis for the recommendation and scope of trade involved in the recommendation. Where appropriate, explanatory comments are provided.

(Last update: 14/06/2024)

Country Notification Basis Scope Valid from
Afghanistan No. 2013/018 Annual reports All trade 17 May 2013
Bangladesh No. 2023/129 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Aves spp. (CITES-listed birds) 22 November 2023
Belize No. 2023/034 Significant trade Myrmecophila tibicinis 15 June 2010
Benin No. 2023/034 Significant trade Pandinus imperator 02 May 2013
Benin No. 2023/034 Significant trade Chamaeleo gracilis 03 February 2016
Benin No. 2023/034 Significant trade Chamaeleo senegalensis 03 February 2016
Benin No. 2023/034 Significant trade Kinixys homeana 03 February 2016
Cameroon No. 2022/045 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Pterocarpus erinaceus 08 June 2022
Central African Republic No. 2022/045 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Pterocarpus erinaceus 08 June 2022
Chad No. 2022/045 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Pterocarpus erinaceus 08 June 2022
Côte d'Ivoire No. 2023/034 Significant trade Pericopsis elata 07 September 2012
Democratic Republic of the Congo No. 2018/082 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Manis spp. 01 November 2018
Democratic Republic of the Congo No. 2022/017 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Psittacus erithacus 15 January 2001
Democratic Republic of the Congo No. 2023/034 Significant trade Poicephalus fuscicollis (Formerly Poicephalus robustus) 09 July 2001
Djibouti No. 2011/010 National legislation All commercial trade 30 April 2004
Djibouti No. 2018/015 Annual reports All trade 30 January 2018
Dominica No. 2024/030 National legislation All commercial trade 10 January 2024
Ecuador No. 2024/043 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Carcharhinus falciformis, Carcharhinus longimanus, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna mokarran, Sphyrna zygaena, Alopias spp., Cetorhinus maximus, Carcharodon carcharias, Isurus oxyrinchus, Isurus paucus, Rhincodon typus, Mobula spp. 11 March 2024
Equatorial Guinea No. 2023/034 Significant trade Prunus africana 01 January 2009
Gambia No. 2022/045 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Pterocarpus erinaceus 08 June 2022
Ghana No. 2023/034 Significant trade Pandinus imperator 12 August 2014
Ghana No. 2023/034 Significant trade Chamaeleo gracilis 03 February 2016
Ghana No. 2023/034 Significant trade Chamaeleo senegalensis 03 February 2016
Grenada No. 2016/022 Annual reports All trade 16 March 2016
Grenada No. 2023/034 Significant trade Strombus gigas 12 May 2006
Guinea No. 2023/034 Significant trade Hippocampus algiricus 03 February 2016
Guinea No. 2023/128 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII All commercial trade 16 May 2013
Guinea-Bissau No. 2022/045 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Pterocarpus erinaceus 08 June 2022
Haiti No. 2023/034 Significant trade Strombus gigas 29 September 2003
Lao People's Democratic Republic No. 2023/034 Significant trade Dendrobium nobile 01 January 2009
Lao People's Democratic Republic No. 2023/127 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII All commercial trade 21 November 2023
Liberia No. 2018/012 National legislation All commercial trade 15 March 2016
Libya No. 2024/031 National legislation All commercial trade 10 January 2024
Madagascar No. 2022/031 Species action plan Dalbergia spp., Diospyros spp. (Population from Madagascar) 15 January 2016
Madagascar No. 2022/031 Species action plan Dalbergia spp., Diospyros spp. 15 January 2016
Madagascar No. 2023/034 Significant trade Phelsuma borai, Phelsuma gouldi, Phelsuma hoeschi, Phelsuma ravenala 20 January 1995
Madagascar No. 2023/034 Significant trade Furcifer labordi 20 January 1995
Madagascar No. 2023/034 Significant trade Coracopsis vasa 20 January 1995
Mali No. 2022/045 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Pterocarpus erinaceus 08 June 2022
Mali No. 2023/034 Significant trade Uromastyx dispar 22 August 2008
Mali No. 2024/023 Significant trade Uromastyx geyri 24 January 2024
Mozambique No. 2023/034 Significant trade Smaug mossambicus (Formerly Cordylus mossambicus) 07 September 2012
Mozambique No. 2023/034 Significant trade Cordylus tropidosternum 10 August 2001
Niger No. 2023/034 Significant trade Chamaeleo africanus 07 September 2012
Nigeria No. 2018/084 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Pterocarpus erinaceus 05 October 2018
Oman No. 2024/032 National legislation All commercial trade 10 January 2024
Sao Tome and Principe No. 2022/034 Annual reports All trade 11 May 2022
Sao Tome and Principe No. 2022/038 National legislation All commercial trade 07 May 2022
Senegal No. 2023/034 Significant trade Hippocampus algiricus 03 February 2016
Solomon Islands No. 2023/034 Significant trade Corucia zebrata 09 July 2001
Solomon Islands No. 2023/034 Significant trade Tridacna derasa, Tridacna crocea, Tridacna gigas, Tridacna maxima, Tridacna noae, Tridacna squamosa (Split from Tridacna maxima at CoP17; includes T. ningaloo following CoP19) 03 February 2016
Solomon Islands No. 2023/034 Significant trade Ornithoptera victoriae 20 January 1995
Solomon Islands No. 2023/034 Significant trade Ornithoptera priamus (Formerly Ornithoptera urvillanus) 20 January 1995
Somalia No. 2019/035 National legislation All commercial trade 30 July 2004
Somalia No. 2024/016 Annual reports All commercial trade 12 January 2024
Togo No. 2022/045 Compliance and enforcement - Article XIII Pterocarpus erinaceus 08 June 2022
Togo No. 2023/034 Significant trade Poicephalus fuscicollis (Formerly Poicephalus robustus) 09 July 2001
Togo No. 2023/034 Significant trade Pandinus imperator 02 May 2013
United Republic of Tanzania No. 2023/034 Significant trade Balearica regulorum 02 May 2013

Note:

As can be seen in the table above, a country can be subject to several recommendations to suspend trade and these recommendations may be different in scope. For example, there may be a recommendation to suspend all trade in specimens of CITES species with a certain country, or all commercial trade in CITES species, or all trade in specimens of a particular species. In such cases, all of the recommendations should be taken into account by Management Authorities considering applications for permits or certificates.

The reason why there can be more than one trade suspension in place for a country is because there are several processes that can result in such a recommendation. The recommendations are made at different times, independently of each other, and each one remains in effect until the criteria for its withdrawal have been met.