Resolution Conf. 13.11


RECALLING Decision 11.166, adopted by the Conference of the Parties at its 11th meeting (Gigiri, 2000), relating to the establishment of the CITES Bushmeat Working Group;

RECOGNIZING that poaching and illicit trade in bushmeat constitute the greatest threat to the survival of wildlife species, for example the gorilla, chimpanzees, elephants and crocodiles, in Africa in general, but especially in Central Africa, and also in all other countries in the world;

CONSIDERING that illicit trade in bushmeat increases poverty and the food deficit among rural communities using bushmeat as their main source of animal protein;

RECOGNIZING also the political will of the States in the sub-region to work for the sustainable management of forest resources as expressed in sub-regional initiatives, including the Yaoundé Declaration;

CONSIDERING also the recognition by the States of the sub-region of the bushmeat crisis as a major threat to the preservation of biodiversity;

CONSIDERING also the potential negative consequences of the development of the timber industry and the exploitation of natural resources;

NOTING the resolution of the European Parliament regarding the non-sustainable exploitation of wildlife and the illicit trade in bushmeat as a major threat to the survival of wildlife species, including apes, and also as a threat to the food security of the rural communities living in forested areas and depending on bushmeat in their diet;

NOTING that the trade in bushmeat involves many species included in the Appendices of the Convention but also species the trade in which is not regulated by CITES;

CONCERNED that unregulated trade in and consumption of bushmeat may bring risks to human health;


ADVISES all relevant Parties to:

a) prohibit the offtake of Appendix-I species for consumption as food and to encourage sustainable levels of offtake for species in Appendix II and III of the Convention;
b) improve the domestic management of CITES-listed species harvested, traded and consumed as bushmeat through a review and, if needed, strengthening of relevant informative, legislative, in situ conservation, monitoring, enforcement and social or economic incentive measures;
c) define clearly the administrative responsibilities of the government agencies that may be involved in, or can contribute to, the domestic regulation of trade in bushmeat and the import, export, re-export and transit or transhipment of bushmeat;
d) clarify or establish property rights regarding CITES-listed species harvested, traded and consumed as bushmeat and to involve local communities in the monitoring of harvest, trade and consumption;
e) review and, if needed, revise logging and other natural resource concessions to ensure that they contribute to the legal, non-detrimental harvesting of, trade in and consumption of bushmeat;
f) encourage the adoption of codes of conduct by the timber, fishing and other natural resource extraction industries, that discourage illegal or unsustainable harvesting, consumption and trade in bushmeat; and
g) identify alternative sources of protein and take other measures to reduce the demand for bushmeat and particularly the consumption of specimens of Appendix-I species;


a) all Parties and non-Parties to raise the awareness of staff in government agencies responsible for the regulation and inspection of food for human consumption, especially those engaged in CITES border controls and ensure that any cross-border trade in food derived from CITES-listed species is accompanied by the necessary import or export permit or re-export certificate; and
b) all relevant States that are not party to CITES to accede to the Convention at the earliest possible date in order to improve control of international trade in bushmeat;


a) all relevant Parties carry out appropriate education campaigns directed at both urban and rural communities to raise awareness of the conservation concerns associated with the trade in bushmeat, especially the consumption and trade in specimens of Appendix-I species, and of the risks to human health associated with unregulated trade in food derived from wild animals;
b) all relevant Parties take measures to increase awareness among enforcement, prosecution and judicial authorities of the illicit trade in specimens of CITES-listed species for human food consumption;
c) the Parties provide to the Secretariat detailed information on significant cases of illicit international trade in bushmeat and inform each other of all circumstances and facts likely to be relevant regarding such trade, with the aim of eradicating it; and
d) relevant Parties make use of information gathered in the MIKE (Monitoring of Illegal Killing of Elephants) system, which may assist in providing data regarding the use of elephant meat in the bushmeat trade and contribute to a better understanding of the dynamics of poaching and the trade in bushmeat;


a) countries and organizations with relevant expertise to support range and consumer States in the preparation or distribution of practical identification techniques to help determine whether bushmeat is derived from CITES-listed species; and
b) that, since biological and distribution data are essential for sustainable trade in bushmeat, donors assist in funding and providing expertise to develop computer databases and mapping and other necessary conservation management techniques; and

CALLS UPON relevant international organizations and the secretariats and Parties to international treaties to recognize the important role they can play in providing assistance, especially to range States, in regulating the trade in bushmeat and tackling the associated issues of poverty, habitat degradation, human population growth and utilization of natural resources, including the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Tropical Timber Organization, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, including its Great Apes Survival Project and the United Nations Population Fund.

Number / Code: 
Conf. 13.11
COP meeting: 
Thirteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties