Conservation of and trade in musk deer

Conservation of and trade in musk deer

AWARE that all musk deer species are included either in Appendix I or Appendix II of the Convention;

RECOGNIZING that musk deer are native to Asia but that natural musk and products containing musk are used and traded worldwide and, therefore, that conservation of musk deer is a global concern;

NOTING that the status and trends of musk deer populations and the domestic demand for musk in range countries are inadequately documented;

FURTHER NOTING that continued illegal trade in raw musk derived from wild musk deer undermines the effectiveness of the Convention;

AWARE that, if Parties and States that are not yet party to the Convention do not take action to eliminate the illegal trade, poaching may cause declines and even extirpation of certain populations;

RECOGNIZING that long-term solutions for the protection of musk deer require the adoption of substantive and measurable actions designed to ensure sustainable use;

RECOGNIZING that strengthening technical cooperation between range and consumer States and financial support would contribute to more effective musk deer conservation;


URGES all Parties, particularly musk deer range and consuming countries and those through which musk deer specimens pass in transit, to take immediate action in order to reduce demonstrably the illegal trade in musk deriving from wild musk deer by:

a) introducing innovative enforcement methods in range and consumer States and, as a matter of priority, strengthening enforcement efforts in key border regions;

b) pursuing the development of a clear labelling system for products containing musk, and the development and dissemination of forensic methods to detect natural musk in medicinal and other products;

c) encouraging all range States and consumer States that are not party to CITES to accede to it at the earliest possible date in order to improve international trade control of raw musk and products containing musk;

d) working with musk consumers to develop alternatives for raw musk in order to reduce demand for natural musk, while encouraging the development of safe and effective techniques for collecting musk from live musk deer; and

e) developing bilateral and regional agreements for improving musk deer conservation and management, strengthening legislation and strengthening enforcement efforts;

RECOMMENDS that manufacturing and consumer States cooperate in the development and distribution of identification guides for manufactured products containing musk to assist with enforcement efforts; and

CALLS on the Parties, international aid agencies, intergovernmental organizations, and non-governmental organizations, as a matter of priority, to provide financial and technical assistance to range States to conduct population surveys, and surveys of domestic markets for musk deer, including both legal and illegal trade.

Document status
Conf. 11.7
Eleventh meeting of the Conference of the Parties
Document type