Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE)

The CITES Monitoring the Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE) Programme is a site-based system designed to monitor trends in the illegal killing of elephants, build management capacity and provide information to help range States make appropriate management and enforcement decisions.

Donors


The MIKE Programme is entirely dependent on donor support. The European Union has been the most important donor for the MIKE programme and has funded implementation in Africa since its inception in 2001, and in Asia since 2017. Funding has also been provided by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Governments of Japan, the United Kingdom and China.

Objectives


The overall aim of MIKE is to provide information needed for elephant range States and the Parties to CITES to make appropriate management and enforcement decisions, and to build institutional capacity within the range States for the long-term management of their elephant populations. MIKE aims to help range States improve their ability to monitor elephant populations, detect changes in levels of illegal killing, and use this information to provide more effective law enforcement and strengthen any regulatory measures required to support such enforcement.

At the core of the MIKE Programme is the site based monitoring of elephant mortality. When an elephant carcass is found, local site personnel try to establish and record the cause of death and other details. This information is recorded in standardized forms, details of which are then consolidated and submitted to the MIKE programme for analysis.This information enables MIKE to identify any changes in poaching pressure, and to develop both subregional and a continent-wide picture of the extent of and trends in the illegal killing of elephants.

One of the major functions of the analysis of this information is to provide a reliable, robust and impartial information base to support discussions and decision making on elephant conservation and management. Summaries reports of the information on trends in illegal elephant killing are updated annually on the CITES website. The information and analyses are also presented at annual CITES Standing Committee meetings and three yearly meetings of the Conference of the Parties.

One of the core mandates given to the MIKE Programme is to build capacity in elephant range States to make use of MIKE in managing elephants and enhancing enforcement. Where funding allows, the MIKE Programme the MIKE programme is also working with national wildlife management agencies to support efforts to enhance enforcement capacity in a number of MIKE sites across Africa. This capacity building typically focuses on providing support to front-line area management and patrol staff designed to help them do their jobs more effectively.

Projects


Currently, the MIKE programme is implementing two major projects funded by the European Union in Africa.

The first of these is the Minimizing the Illegal Killing of Elephants and other Endangered Species (MIKES) project, which is the flagship of the MIKE programme. Alongside the traditional MIKE Programme monitoring, capacity building and reporting, the project in-cludes activities to strengthen the capacity of local law enforcement agencies to reduce the impacts of poaching and illegal wildlife trade on key species, and to pilot the programme’s monitoring approaches in the Caribbean and Pacific regions, with a focus on marine turtles. MIKES is funded by the 10th European Development Fund with the support of the Africa, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States.

The second European Union funded project being implemented in East and Southern Africa is the Cross Regional Wildlife Conservation in Eastern and Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean, which is being implemented in partnership with UNODC and the Convention on Migratory Species. The project aims to build capacity and systems to combat the illegal wildlife trade at the site, national and regaional levels. The CITES MIKE Programme is leading in the implementation of activities to enhance enforcement and cross-border collaboration between MIKE sites and other areas located in critical transboundary ecosystems in eastern and southern Africa.

In Asia, the European Union is also funding the MIKE Programme through the  Law Enforcement and Demand Management in Asia project, which is being implemented in partnership with UNODC. This support builds on that provided by USFWS, Governments of Japan, the United Kingdom and China. The focus of the MIKE Programme aspects of the project is strengthening monitoring systems at MIKE sites in Asia, and building site-based capacity to use the information and improve its contribution to protection efforts. The Law Enforcement and Demand Management in Asia project is funded by the European Union’s Global Public Goods and Challenges Programme.

Reports to CITES


Conference of the Parties

Every two to three years, the Conference of the Parties meets to review the implementation of the Convention. The MIKE Programme reports to each Conference of the Parties. Links to these reports are provided below.

CoP17 (2016) CoP14 (2007)
CoP17 (2016) Addendum CoP13 (2004)
CoP16 (2013) CoP12 (2002)
CoP16 (2013) Addendum CoP11 (2000)
CoP15 (2010)  


Standing Committee

The Standing Committee provides policy guidance to the Secretariat on the implementation of the Convention and carries out tasks given to it by the Conference of the Parties. Usually the Standing Committee meets once a year. The MIKE Programme reports to each Standing Committee in a document jointly prepared with ETIS, UNEP-WCMC, AfESG, AsESG. Links to these reports are below:

SC Reports   Information Documents  
SC70 (2018) SC65 (2014) SC65 (2014)  
SC70 (2018) Annex SC62 (2012) SC62 (2012)  
SC69 (2017) SC61 (2011) SC61 (2011)  
SC69 (2017) Annex SC61 (2011) Annex 1    
SC66 (2015) SC62 (2011) Annex 2    

 

Structure


Institutional Arrangements

The implementation of MIKE is the responsibility of the Standing Committee, who has in turn set up a sub-committee, known as the MIKE-ETIS Subgroup, to carry out that responsibility. The CITES Secretariat is charged with hiring appropriate experts to provide technical support. It has done this by establishing a MIKE Central Coordinating Unit (MIKE CCU) which is currently located at the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya.

For the purposes of MIKE implementation, Africa is divided into four subregions and Asia are is divided two sub-regions. In each of these sub-regions implementation is supervised by a Sub-regional Steering Committee, comprised of the national wildlife directors from participating elephant range States. Each range State also has a National focal point and each site has a locally based Site focal point.

MIKE’s technical outputs are overseen and endorsed by an independent Technical Advisory Group (TAG). Established by the Standing Committee, the TAG is a group of volunteer experts drawn from across the globe. The TAG guides the technical quality of the MIKE processes and methods, and reviews the programme’s analytical outputs. The TAG is comprised of one expert from each sub-region and six global specialists.

MIKE and ETIS Subgroup of the Standing Committee

The MIKE-ETIS Subgroup was established by the CITES Standing Committee at its 41st meeting (Geneva, February 1999). At its 49th meeting (Geneva, April 2003) the mandate of the Subgroup was expanded to include ETIS.

The role of the MIKE and ETIS Subgroup is laid out in the group’s Terms of Reference.

The membership of the MIKE and ETIS Subgroup is usually re-established at the meeting of the Standing Committee that immediately follows each meeting of the Conference of the Parties. The current membership is as follows:

  • Four African elephant range States (2 anglophone and 2 francophone): Congo, Ethiopia, Niger and Namibia;
  • Two Asian elephant range States: China and Indonesia; and
  • Two representatives from Europe and North America: Belgium and Canada.

The records of meetings of the Subgroup are provided below for general information.

MESG_SC70_2018 MESG_SC59_2010
MESG SC69_2017 MESG_SC57_2008
MESG_SC66_2016 MESG_SC55_2007
MESG_SC65_2014 MESG_SC54_2006
MESG_SC62_2012 MESG_SC53_2005
MESG_SC61_2011  


MIKE and ETIS Technical Advisory Group

The Standing Committee is charged with establishing a Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to provide technical oversight to both MIKE and ETIS.Broadly, the TAG was established:

  • To ensure the technical and practical soundness of MIKE and ETIS;
  • To help ensure the consistency and appropriateness of the design, development and implementation of MIKE across the six sub-regions in Africa and Asia and of ETIS worldwide; and
  • To advise on appropriate analytical procedures and time-frames for outputs or products from MIKE and ETIS to the Parties or relevant bodies established by the Parties.

The TAG Terms of Reference were reviewed and approved by the MIKE and ETIS Subgroup of the Standing Committee in 2014.

The TAG consists of up to 12 members, plus additional co-opted members. Six members are nominated by range State governments of the six subregions where elephants occur. The MIKE and ETIS Subgroup reviews and confirms nominations made by the range States. The rest of the members are appointed by the MIKE and ETIS Subgroup on the basis of their expertise on relevant subjects. The chairs of the IUCN/SSC African Elephant and Asian Elephant Specialist Groups (AfESG and AsESG respectively) are co-opted members of the TAG.

As described in Notification to the Parties 2016/012, the current members of the TAG are the following:

Sub-regional category: Individual Category: Co-opted members:
  • Leonard Mubalama (Central Africa)
  • Chris Thouless (Eastern Africa)
  • Russell Taylor (Southern Africa)
  • Emmanuel Hema (West Africa)
  • Raman Sukumar (South Asia)
  • Li Zhang (Southeast Asia)
  • Hugo Jachmann
  • E.J. Milner-Gulland
  • Holly Dublin
  • IUCN/SSC AfESG Chair: Benson Okita-Ouma/Robert Slotow
  • IUCN/SSC AsESG Chair: Vivek Menon
  • ETIS Statistician: Fiona Underwood

Minutes of the TAG meetings are available below:


MIKE Sites


Site Commitments

The key responsibilities that are invloved in being a MIKE site are as follows:
  • Nominating a site focal point with responsibility for overseeing MIKE-related activities at the site, as well as a national focal point (if not already in place) 
  • Regularly collecting, synthesising and transmitting elephant mortality (and if possible patrol effort and coverage data) to the MIKE Programme
  • Carrying out assessments of site law enforcement capacity, through completion of the MIKE Site-level Law Enforcement Capacity Assessment;
  • Facilitating independent verification of site data when requested by the MIKE Programme
Many range States are striving to extend MIKE processes to other significant sites. The process for doing this is described in the section below on New MIKE sites.
 

Current MIKE sites

List of current MIKE sites

CENTRAL AFRICA   EAST AFRICA  

Country

MIKE Sites

Country

MIKE Sites

Cameroon

Boumba Bek National Park

Waza National Park

Eritrea

Gash Setit

Central African Republic

 

Bangassou Classified Forest

Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area

Sangba Pilot Zone

Ethiopia

 

Babille Elephant Sanctuary

Kafta Sheraro National Park

Chad

Zakouma National Park

Kenya

Meru National Park

Mount Elgon National Park

Samburu-Laikipia

Tsavo Conservation Area

Congo

Nouabalé Ndoki National Park

Odzala-Kokoua National Park

Rwanda

Akagera National Park

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Garamba National Park

Kahuzi Biega National Park

Okapi Wildlife Reserve

Salonga National Park

Virunga National Park

United Republic of Tanzania

 

Katavi National Park and Rukwa Game Reserve

Mkomazi National Park

Ruaha National Park and Rungwa Game Reserve

Selous and Mikumi National Parks

Tarangire and Manyara National Parks

Equatorial Guinea

 

Monte Alén

Gabon

Lopé National Park

Minkébé National Park

Uganda

Murchison Falls National Park

Queen Elizabeth National Park

Mount Elgon National Park

SOUTHERN AFRICA

  WEST AFRICA  

Country

MIKE Site

Country

MIKE Site

Angola

Luengue-Luiana National Park

Benin

Pendjari Biosphere Reserve

Park W du Bénin

Botswana

Chobe National Park

Malawi

Kasungu National Park  

Majete Wildlife Reserve

Burkina Faso

Nazinga Game Ranch

Parc National W du Burkina

Mozambique

Cabora Bassa (Magoe South District)

Limpopo National Park

Niassa Game Reserve

Côte d'Ivoire

 

Comoé National Park

Marahoué National Park

Taï National Park

Namibia

Etosha National Park

Zambezi MIKE Site

Ghana

Kakum National Park

Mole National Park

South Africa

Kruger National Park

Guinea

Ziama Classified Forest

Zambia

South Luangwa National Park

Lower Zambezi National Park

North Luangwa National Park

Kafue National Park

Sioma Ngwezi National Park

Liberia

Sapo National Park

Zimbabwe

Chewore Safari Area

Nyaminyami District

Mana Pools/Sapi Conservation Area

Mali

Gourma MIKE site

Niger

Parc W du Niger

Babban Rafi Forest

Nigeria

Yankari National Park

Senegal

Niokolo-Koba National Park

Togo

Fazao Malfakassa National Park

Keran National Park 

 
SOUTH ASIA   SOUTH EAST ASIA  

Bangladesh

Chunati Wildlife Sanctuary

Cambodia

Cardamom Forest Protection Area

Mondulkiri Protected Forest

Bhutan

Samtse Forest Division

People's Republic of China

Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve

India

Chirang-Ripu Elephant Reserve

Deomali Elephant Reserve

Dihing Patkai Elephant Reserve

Garo Hills Elephant Reserve

Eastern Dooars Elephant Reserve

Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve

Shivalik Elephant Reserve

Mysore Elephant Reserve

Nilgiri Elephant Reserve

Wayanad Elephant Reserve

Indonesia

Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park

Way Kambas National Park

Lao People's Democratic Republic

Nakai Nam Theun

Nam Pouy

Malaysia

Endau-Rompin National Park

Taman Negara National Park

Nepal Suklaphanta Wildlife Reserve

Myanmar

Shwe U Daung National Park

Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park

Sri Lanka

Wilpattu National Park

Yala Reserve

Thailand

Kui Buri National Park

Salakphra Wildlife Sanctuary

 

   

Viet Nam

Cat Tien National Park

 

New MIKE sites

The CITES MIKE Programme encourages range States that have suitable conservation areas with elephant populations that are not already MIKE sites to nominate these areas for inclusion as new MIKE sites. To do so, the wildlife management agency mandated for managing the proposed site should complete a MIKE site nomination form electronically and email it to the MIKE CCU. 

The application form must be accompanied by the following:

  • A letter signed by the head of the management agency for the site being proposed, nominating the site and confirming the agency's willingness to meet the MIKE site requirements (A template for this letter is provided at the end of the nomination form);
  • Geographical Information System (GIS) files (e.g. shapefile or kml file) of the proposed MIKE site showing the site's boundaries;
  • A completed MIKE site law enforcement capacity assessment. 

All documents can be obtained from the MIKE Programme CCU at the contact details below, or via email request. Proposals for new MIKE sites will be reviewed by the MIKE Technical Advisory Group (TAG), and the concerned wildlife management agency will be informed in due course whether their application has been accepted.

MIKE also encourages partners supporting monitoring activities at potential new MIKE sites to work with their host wildlife management agencies in submitting application forms for their sites and, once accepted, in fulfilling the MIKE site monitoring data requirements. However, the MIKE Site Application Form is only to be submitted by representatives of the wildlife agency mandated for managing the proposed MIKE site (at the national or sub-national level as appropriate).

Data and Analysis


MIKE Data Analysis

MIKE evaluates relative poaching levels based on the Proportion of Illegally Killed Elephants (PIKE), which is calculated as the number of illegally killed elephants found divided by the total number of el ephant carcasses encountered by patrols or other means, aggregated by year for each site. PIKE can be scaled up to the subregional and continental levels. 

While PIKE provides a sensitive measure of poaching trends, it may be affected by a number of potential biases related to data quality, carcass detection probabilities, variation in natural mortality rates and other factors, and hence results need to be interpreted with caution.

Elephant Mortality Data

Access to MIKE data is governed by the provisions of CITES Resolution Conf. 10.10 (Rev. CoP17), which states:

g) summaries and aggregates of data provided to MIKE and ETIS, and the analyses of such data, constitute information that will be considered to be in the public domain once they are published on the CITES website, or otherwise publicly distributed; the detailed data on individual seizure cases, elephant mortalities and law enforcement submitted to MIKE or ETIS are owned by the respective data providers, which in most case are the CITES Parties; any such data relating to a CITES Party will be accessible to that Party for information and review purposes, but will not be released to any third party without the consent of the Party concerned; data may also be released to contractors (e.g. statisticians) or other researchers (e.g. MIKE and ETIS Subgroup - approved research collaborations) under appropriate non-disclosure agreements; and

As stipulated by Resolution Conf. 10.10 (Rev. CoP17) summaries and aggregates of data provided to MIKE are provided in the links below.

Any third parties wishing to obtain more detailed elephant carcass data should get in touch with the CITES management authority of the elephant range State(s) concerned.

MIKE Analytical Code

To be added shortly.