Evaluation of the field data collection: forms, sampling design, lem


Monitoring Illegal Killing of Elephants (MIKE)

Central African Pilot Project



John A. Hart

November 2001









7.1 The S.M.A.R.T. Approach to Capacity Building

Model Work and Staff Development Plans


Pilot Project Technical Reports


ANNEX 1. TRAINING 1. Field Survey Methods: Field Course Program

ANNEX 2. TRAINING 2. Law Enforcement Monitoring: Course Program

ANNEX 3. TRAINING 3. Gestion Données et Rapportage CITES.

ANNEX 4. Results of Trainee Evaluation of TRAINING 2.



In general, the existing technical and human capacity to realize the objectives of the MIKE program is low in the Central African sub-region. Many national staff need significant training in order to produce the mandated MIKE products. Training must be actively integrated into all levels of the MIKE program, from site officers to steering committee representatives.

This report provides an overview of three organized pilot training sessions for MIKE staff and associated partners in Central Africa. Training 1 covered field methods, Training 2 covered Law Enforcement Monitoring and Training 3 introduced data management and reporting procedures for CITES. Course outlines and summary content are provided.

A trainee evaluation of Training 2 is provided. Trainees thought the modules were well prepared, but that the presentation of materials could have been more efficient. Training 1 and 2 were conducted in the field, Training 3 was held in an urban setting.

Specific recommendations for field-level training are provided. Additional recommendations for training are contained in the earlier technical reports.

An overall assessment of capacity building in the MIKE program, and lesson learned for training from the pilot experience is provided. In general, greater emphasis should be placed on reporting.

The experiences and lesson learned from the pilot project are developed into a model training and capacity building strategy for the MIKE program.

I would like to thank US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Wildlife Conservation Society for major funding support for the MIKE pilot training program. The Dutch IUCN and the CARPE program also provided support. I would like to express my appreciation and gratitude to all of my fellow trainers including Lee White, Peter Walsh, Rene Beyers, Kes Smith, Didier Mbanjock and Eric Ngomo. I am also grateful to Esther Burke for discussion of training strategies and for the SMART capacity building model.


The monitoring of elephants and illegal elephant killing will require qualified national staff to collect, analyze and transmit data. An evaluation of available capacity to accomplish this was conducted at the outset of the pilot project in Training 1. This indicated there were significant gaps in capacity of MIKE national staff for most of the Central African Range States. Thus training and capacity building are among the most important objectives of the Pilot Project. Training must remain a priority for the expanded MIKE program as well. Without a major commitment to training, the objectives of the MIKE program will not be met.

Training conducted during the Central African Pilot Project included organized group training, specialized tutoring and one-on-one mentorship. This report will emphasize the organized group training, although the other individualized inputs were critically important as well.

A number of specific recommendation arising from the pilot training are presented in the four technical reports already submitted. The goal of the present report is to give an overview of the pilot training program, and to provide guidelines for the development of training in the expanded MIKE program.

The specific objectives to be covered in this report are to:

Summarize the three pilot project training modules including an evaluation of the performance of national MIKE staff and an evaluation of the training. Provide the major lessons learned from the pilot training experience Develop guidelines and propose a strategy for the further development of MIKE training.


Pilot Project training programs were oriented to developing basic skills, to teaching protocols for field data collection, along with the theory behind these, and to introducing MIKE staff to the methods and reporting forms for managing and transmitting information to CITES.

Three formal, group training sessions were held during the pilot project. These are summarized in Table 1.


TABLE 1 Mike Pilot Project Group Training Program



Principal activities

1) Field Survey Methods

September – November 1999

Nouabale Ndoki NP, Congo

Introduce field survey techniques and skills, line transect survey methods

2) Law Enforcement Monitoring

May 2000, Lac Lobeke NP, Cameroun

Introduce methods to monitor illegal elephant killing and anti-poaching effort, develop training of guard secretaries.

3) Data Management and Reporting

December 2000, Limbe Botanical Gardens, Cameroun

Provide principles of data management Introduce MIKE reporting forms and procedures for communication of MIKE survey and LEM data

In addition to the formal training, MIKE officers received one-on-on mentorship at different times during the pilot project. The officers from Congo, DR Congo and CAR received individualized tutoring in use of computers and software provided by locally-based computer training programs. If progress is followed closely, this proved to be an efficient way to bring some of the staff "up to speed" with computers,

Dr. Lee White managed the first training session, Training 1, with assistance from Rene Beyers and Peter Walsh. Drs. John Hart and Kes Smith led Training 2. John Hart and Rene Beyers led Training 3, with assistance from Dider Mbanjock (introduction to spread sheets) and Eric Ngomo (computer maintenance and management).

Summary outlines of the material covered in the three formal training sessions are presented in Annexes 1 –3.


During the pilot project I was persoanlly involved in the training of National MIKE staff from five countries: DR Congo, Gabon, Cameroun, Central African Republic and Congo Brazzaville. National staff from Equatorial Guinea and Tchad did not participate in the pilot project.

Training 1 Survey Methods

Potential MIKE Field Team Leaders for the MIKE Pilot Project sites of the following countries attended the training:

Gabon: 1 (Minkebe)

Cameroon: 1 (Boumba Bek)

Central African Republic: 2 (Dzangha Sangha)

Congo: 2 (Odzala) + 1 (Conkouati)

DRC: 1 (Ituri)

Training 1 was held in late 1999, before the full MIKE pilot, provided a means to screen and evaluate potential candidates for National MIKE Officers and Field Officers for MIKE sites. Candidates for Gabon and DRC met required formal training levels and experience requirements detailed in the Terms of Reference developed in the pilot project proposal (See also Report No 6). The candidate for Congo Republic (Brazzaville) was weak and lacked the formal training experience, and had inadequate knowledge of basic data handling and analysis. He was later replaced. .

The candidates from Dzanga Sangha were very motivated but lacked the necessary educational background to act reliably as Field Team Leaders from a technical point of view. Stronger candidates or continued technical assistance should be sought for this site. The candidates for the other sites performed satisfactorily (some performed very well) and are expected to be apt for their position given extra training (level 2 training) and technical follow-up and assistance.

A number of trainees were especially weak in working with computers. This proved to be a problem during the entire pilot project, and some effort was made to pay for private computer lessons for several national officers. Although everyone had made some progress by the end of the pilot, not all officers were able to handle the simple spreadsheets developed for reporting. Thus paper and pencil hard copy reports may be required for reporting for some of the participating range states.

National MIKE officers participated in all the theoretical and practical modules (including the field trips). They were exposed to actual, real field conditions and were trained in all field techniques. Except for the Congolese candidate, they also received extra training in statistics and sampling design and were introduced to the use of Geographic Information Systems for handling and analysing data.

All three MIKE national officers showed enthusiasm for the work, though the candidate from Congo Brazzaville became discouraged at times, when unable to keep up with fellow colleagues in the course work.

The DR Congo and Gabonese officers clearly demonstrated capacity to handle MIKE data collection and could accomplish basic information management. Given additional training in data handling and analysis and technical follow-up, the prospects for the Gabonese and DR Congo candidates are very promising. The Congo Brazzaville candidate was unlikely to produce even minimal reporting for MIKE at the end of the training. Much further training would be required to bring him up to minimal standards. The MIKe officers from CAR and Cameroun did not participate in this training.

Training 2. LEM

Training 2 was attended by all national officers and most site officers from MIKE sites in the region. Only the Cmaerounian national officer failed to attend.

At the end of the training, trainees were asked to evaluate the training session. The results of the evaluation are summarized in Annex 4.

The results of the evaluation of Traing 2 indicate that most trainees need time to fully grasp a series of modules. Some of the national staff were older, long out of school, and did not like to be put in a «class room» context with people they considered their equals or in some cases subordinates. Possible ways to avoid this problem that were used with some success during the training included having trainees present some modules themsleves (the obviousrequirement is that they have mastered to some extent the material), and to include ample chances for field exercises to make training concepts more concrete, and interaction between trainees possible.

In general, short frequent training sessions, and one-on one training should be used as possible, with larger group sessions used to consolidate and unify training outcomes.

At the end of the training, the «graduates» all wanted certidicates, and thought of themselves as something of a graduating class. Despite the difficulties, group training sessions do create a spirit of solidarity and permit development of necessary group cohesion. However, they are probably not the most efficient means to communicte information and evaluate and imporve individual capacity.


Training 3 Data Management and MIKE Reporting

The final pilot training session was attended by all national officers except the Camerounian officer, and by most of the site officers. At the end of the Traiing 3, all national officers were asked to provide an evaluation of the overall pilot project. Results of this are given in Report No 6.

The training objectives of Training 3 were only partially met because not all attending officers had the required computer skills. In general the site officers who attended the training produced the best perfomrance. Most of these field staff had better computer and alaytical skills than their national officers (with the exception of Gabon and DR Congo). Very importantly, they had a person interest in the data and its analysis, since they themselves had collected it and were clearly interested in its proper treatment and communication.

The DR Congo and Gabonese national officers had best command of the material among the five particpating countries. Both the Congolese (Brazzaville) and CAR national officers will require further intensive training on computers.

At the end of Training 3, all particpating officers were asked to preapre a final reprot with completed reporting spreadsheets and froms, and to submit this to the CITES Secretariat by February 2001. (At this point the MIKE Director had not been named). Only two officers (DR Congo and Gabon) managed to accomplished this.

t was not possible to evaluate the Cameorunian national program because of the absence of the Camerounian national officer during the training.


The following observations and recommendations regarding training for MIKE field surveys are based on an evaluation by myself and the trainers who participated in Training 1 and Training 2.

Selection of MIKE national staff, and in particular those responsible for producing technical products should be done carefully, and candidates should meet agreed profiles. Staff profiles and terms of reference developed in the Pilot Project should be reviewed and updated for subsequent phases of the MIKE Program.

National Elephant Officers, and if possible, Site Officers and Field Leaders responsible for field data collection should also be trained in at least the preliminary stages of data analysis. This is important to ensure motivation and data quality. This requires that these officers meet a minimum formal education requirement and have some prior experience.

With line transect (distance) survey methods (see Final Technical Reports 1 and 2), an understanding of the basic elements of survey design and analysis is essential This understanding will better prepare national staff to ensure data quality in the field. People who do not understand the reasoning for survey layout and how field protocols relate to analysis are less likely to conduct good surveys.

Field Leaders and National Elephant Officers should be trained to select and train field teams. The requirement to train others ensures that national staff fully understand methods and protocols and are able leaders. The MIKE program should emphasize training of trainers, and leadership.

Extensive practice in the field is essential. Accuracy and efficiency in data collection improved markedly during the course of the pilot project. It is estimated that at least two to three months of field work are required before confidence, efficiency and accuracy is achieved for line transect data collection. A similar "trial" period is also required for LEM data collection. It is critical to ensure regular individual evaluation during these trial periods.

Quality control of field work, data collection and reporting is essential and must be planned from the start. The need for follow-up, and the retraining of field teams became apparent even during the course of the Training 1. Follow-up training should be anticipated from the start.

National MIKE officers must have practical field experience in order to understand the conditions affecting field operations and to better prepare them to assess data quality. This experience will also help them to develop a realistic and efficient survey plan. All National Officers must spend some time in the field.

Field Leaders must be trained to weigh options and make decisions concerning surveys in relation to constraints in the field. The actual implementation of a survey plan may depend on factors such as the availability of potable water for camping, weather, sickness, impassable areas etc. It is not possible to include all these factors in the sampling plan. Field Leaders will be challenged to make decisions on the spot. Some inputs that will help ensure good quality surveys include:

Instructions on how and where to collect data in the field must be clear. It should be confirmed that these are clearly understood. Maps should be given in advance to Field Leaders with the placement of sampling units drawn on them. Model decision making exercises in the face of potential constraints encountered in the field should be conducted. "What do you do if…." scenarios should be used.


he following lessons learned and general recommendations concerning capacity building were developed based on the training experience of the Pilot Project:

Train to Terms of Reference. The terms of reference and profiles for each staff position of the national MIKE programs were established and agreed to by sub-regional Project Steering Committee early in the Pilot Project. These were used to guide staff selection, to plan division of tasks and responsibilities, and to design MIKE training programs. Training programs should be developed to allow MIKE staff to accomplish their terms of reference. Therefore care should be take at the outset in careful defining Terms of Reference for each staff person (See also Strategy Development below).

Training objectives should be clearly and directly linked to specific well defined MIKE activities or products. Any background or theoretical material should also be linked to these products. Training, as much as possible, should be oriented to meeting specific needs for MIKE and filling identified gaps.

The Pilot Project training program focused on Field Leaders (or Site Officers) and National Elephant Officers. The overall MIKE training program should be broadened to include all national MIKE staff. it might be useful to train Sub–regional Steering Committee members and national CITES representatives in information management to enhance their communication with the Secretariat.

Information Management, Analysis and Report Transmission. The ability to manage and communicate information was the major weak point of the MIKE Pilot Project, and is a major weakness in the Central African sub-region. Although information from the field is far from complete, and can benefit from further development, broadly speaking, the capacity to generate information on wildlife populations and threats is widely available in Central Africa. The capacity to manage, analyse and communicate this information in contrast, is far from adequate.

Some specific recommendations to address this problem include:

Information management and analysis should be a top priority for further training in the MIKE program. MIKE should promote further investment in data management and communication at the level of national administrations. In particular some system of archiving and accessing MIKE information must be put in place in all participating administrations. Communication should be facilitated at all levels in national MIKE programs. MIKE can play a key role in enhancing communication of information between MIKE sites in the sub-region. National MIKE programs should promote collaboration among partners to improve and harmonize information management at the national level.

Frequent Short Group Training Sessions

More frequent training programs of shorter duration are better than fewer and longer programs. The shorter programs are easier to manage, less expensive, and have a greater likelihood of full staff participation. Shorter programs interfere less with schedules and other responsibilities of the participants. Finally, most staff can concentrate more effectively on training objectives and materials if the training periods are short.

Training should take place at MIKE sites, and in the field, in general. This avoids the distractions that can detract from a training if the program is held in an urban setting. It also permits more ready access to the field for trial applications, and allows trainees to better appreciate the range of site conditions in the MIKE program. The only training session we would recommend to be held in a more urban setting are those dealing with data management, reporting and communication.

Individualized Training for Collaborative Teams.

Staff vary widely in experience and capacity. Each staff should have a personal evaluation of training needs, and an individualized program developed for them. Personalized mentorship was the most effective training context during the Pilot Project, although this places a large burden on trainers. The proportion of staff trained by mentorship is limited due to time requirements and large number of staff. One way to increase the scope of mentorship is for the MIKE program to emphasize the training o trainers. In effect the training of mentors.

MIKE training should aim to build monitoring teams, and train staff to work in teams. This is especially vital since team effort will be required at all stages from data collection to analysis.

Staff evaluation and retraining must be built into the program from the start if MIKE is to produce information of adequate quality. Evaluation should be based in the field context or the actual context of data development as possible.

It should be clearly understood that a principal objective of evaluation is to provide a input for retraining. The "SMART" framework for staff management and development provides a useful model for this (See below).

Finally, training programs should be harmonized across the African sub-regions. This is particularly important for Law Enforcement Monitoring and data reporting and transmission.

Technical Support.

Selected staff should receive training in specialized areas, such as selected computer software, basic statistics and GIS, that will increase their efficiency and effectiveness. Computer training is important for all national staff. Many specialized training programs, such as computer training, are better left to specialized trainers, not necessarily to MIKE program staff.

The MIKE program will only produce results if appropriate and effective technical support is provided. This support includes not only training, but also data analysis, statistical advice and maintenance of equipment and computers. Of these inputs, support for analysis and computers will be most important in the Central African sub-region.

Elephant inventories in Central African forests will be based on line transect counts of dung using "Distance for analysis of the data. The experience of trainees in Training 1, and confirmed throughout the data collection phase of the pilot, is that for the next phase of MIKE, at least, use of Distance, will require regular technical support to verify data quality, and to produce final analyses. This can be provided on a consultant ship basis. Some national staff will clearly gain better capacity to manage the Distance analytical programs. Some of these individuals could also assist teams in more than one site. Nevertheless, the MIKE program should foresee the need for high quality technical support for the survey program in the immediate future.

Computers and electronic communication will become an increasingly important component of the MIKE program. Additional training in computers is needed at all levels. It is essential that there be funds and access for technical support for this. Essentially all national programs faced computer and software problems over the course of the pilot project. The ability to provide rapid maintenance and repairs will be required. .

The MIKE program should be open to continuing methodological developments in all areas, and should be a leader in developing and promoting well-designed survey and monitoring programs in national wildlife programs. These contributions can be linked to the technical support described above.

Staff Selection. Every effort should be made to ensure that individuals nominated for national MIKE positions have the profiles to meet agreed terms of reference. A number of national staff did not meet these standards during the Pilot Project. To some extent gaps in capacity can be filled by technical assistance, and further training, however it is important to screen candidates before they are brought into the program to determine whether they will be able to perform required tasks.

Staff turnover was a major problem during the pilot project. Essentially departing trained staff were replaced by untrained staff. It was not possible to train these new staff members efficiently. Staff turnover should be limited during the course of the MIKE program. It is important to have some assurance that selected staff will remain with the program at least long enough to accomplish the tasks for which they were trained, otherwise investments in training are lost. Staff turnover will greatly increase the costs of the MIKE program and decrease quality of the results.

More women should be recruited. Only two women participated in Training 1, but they were among the best participants These individuals were dedicated to the wildlife profession, a profession that is not common for women in Africa. Women that make the decision to work in the wildlife field, and succeed at it, are likely to be excellent candidates for the MIKE program.


Training must remain one of the most important activities for the MIKE program. Indeed the future of MIKE will depend upon an efficient training program. It is clear, from the pilot experience, that capacity building and staff evaluation must be developed simultaneously.

Specific recommendations for a MIKE training program have been provided above. This section develops an outline for a overall strategy for training for the MIKE program. This strategy, which goes by the acronym S.M.A.R.T, is based on a approach provided by a human resource development professional.

The SMART approach has a number of features that are useful for the MIKE context:

The approach potentially links all levels of a the MIKE management structure. This linkage can extend from the central directorate out to the field site, or can be developed at any level in between. The approach is focused on the production of specific products and output. This will facilitate developing training objectives and creating terms of reference for project staff. Finally, the SMART approach is driven by specific and individual needs and duties of each participating staff.

7.1 The S.M.A.R.T. Approach to Capacity Building.

The SMART approach identifies the operational working units of the MIKE program, and then develops SMART objectives for each staff member.

SMART objectives are:

S Specific. Output is well defined.

M Measurable. Output and performance can be measured and evaluated.

A Attainable. Objectives are achievable with proper training, supervision and support.

R Relevant. Products are clearly related to overall program objectives

T Time bound. Output is to have an established time frame.

Capacity building is developed in the context of overall program or project management. I provide an example using the national elephant programs that are the building blocks of MIKE. The steps are:

1) Set overall objectives of the national MIKE program

-- Data collection, analysis reporting from identified sites and sampling areas.

2) Establish overall strategy to achieve objective

-- Operational field teams, site-based data management, field quality controls, data transmission, etc.

3) Establish SMART objectives for all staff

-- Create Terms of Reference for each staff

-- Develop Individual Work Plan for each staff (See model below)

4) Create individual Development Plan for each staff

-- See model below

5) Execute Work Plan and Development Plan

-- Following a program calendar and time talbe.

6) Evaluate Work Plan Achievements and link to Overall Objectives and Development Plan

-- Identify further training and next round of staff development based on evaluation.

7.2 Model Work and Staff Development Plans

The model plans below are for a Site Officer with primary responsibility as field team leader

A) Work Plan Position: Field Team Leader, Work plan period: Jan 02 to July 02


Program Objectives

Individual SMART Objective





Establish site inventory program

Lay out survey design

The survey design


Approval by National Officer


Conduct Elephant inventories

Recruit and train Field teams

Staff hired and trained


Staff listing and training results approved by National Officer



Conduct inventories in the field

Completed Survey data sheets


Acceptance and critique of data sheets by National Officer



B) Development Plan Field Team Leader, Work plan period: Jan 02 to July 02


Work Plan


Individual Development Objective





Establish site inventory program

Ability to manage site base map

ArcView workshop


Certificate of competence


Conduct Elephant inventories

Ability to complete spreadsheets

Excel course

Self-instruction via manuals





Approval by National Officer

Self evaluation



Ability to recruit and train staff

Workshop on personnel management


Certificate of competence




The following provides a list of the minimum knowledge and information, that will be needed by MIKE national and site officers to ensure proper management of the MIKE program. This list is based on the Central African pilot experience. It is provided here to guide the use of the Pilot Project Technical Reports in developing a MIKE training manual. Bulleted notes below each entry include the following:

Reference to the Pilot Project Technical Reports where relevant material can be found. " Not Developed" refers to materials that were not developed during the Pilot Project. "Tutorial advised" indicates material that, based on the pilot experience, would be better presented on an individualized tutorial basis. Additional notes identify areas requiring further development.

1) Overview of CITES, MIKE and ETIS programs, Structure of MIKE program

Not Developed

2) Survey Design: Principles of unbiased survey design

Report No 1 Further amplification for LEM surveys, aerial inventories, village surveys desirable A simple "step by step" for field staff would be desirable, once approach and design is approved by TAG.

3) Ground Survey Methods: Methods, protocols and model field sheets

Report No 2. Transect based ground surveys covered

4) Aerial survey Methods


5) Monitoring of illegal elephant killing and anti-poaching effort

Report No 3.

6) Site Reports Updating of site base maps and data bases.

Report No 4. Simplified protocols to provide site reports for survey locations in areas outside of protected areas must be developed.

7) Data Management

Capacity in Excel or similar spread sheet software Capacity in creating archives and data backup Tutorial advised

8) Analysis of Elephant Survey Data

Not Developed Use of Distance methods and software advised for ground surveys Applicability to aerial surveys should be investigated.

9) CITES MIKE Reporting

Reporting forms and spread sheets: Reports 2 (elephant inventories), Report 3 (LEM) Site Report (trimester basis preferably). Simplify reporting spread sheets to provide only information required by MIKE.

10) Hardware and Software Management.

Care of project computers and software Tutorial advised.


8.1 Pilot Project Technical Reports:







ANNEX 1. TRAINING 1. Field Survey Methods: Field Course Program

ANNEX 2. TRAINING 2. Law Enforcement Monitoring: Course Program

ANNEX 3. TRAINING 3. Data Management and CITES Reporting.

ANNEX 4. Results of Trainee Evaluation of TRAINING 2.



The training was held from the 16th of September till the 17th of November in the Nouabable Ndoki National Park and was hosted by the Nouabale Ndoki Wildlife Conservation Society project. The course was organised by Dr. Lee White as part of a series of annual training sessions to train people involved in conservation in Central Africa to collect scientific information and use it for management and conservation. The MIKE component was incorporated in this broader context.

The costs of the training were covered by WCS with a grant from the MacArthur Foundation and partly also by CITES as a contribution toward the MIKE component.

The original general training was modified to accommodate the needs of MIKE and the selection of trainees was based on their future involvement in the Central African MIKE pilot project.

A total of three potential MIKE national officers and 8 MIKE field team leaders from 5 different countries (Congo, DRC, Gabon, Cameroon and Central African Republic) were invited to the training. MIKE national officers participated in all training modules but also received a few extra sessions in statistics and GIS, which were not attended by the field team leaders.


The objectives of the MIKE component of Training 1 were:

to introduce future MIKE pilot project members to CITES and the MIKE process to give trainees the theoretical background for monitoring elephants and other animals in Central African rainforests to train basic field techniques and field sampling to analyse field data and present the results in a report to familiarise future MIKE pilot project members with some of the forms to be filled in for MIKE


The training was divided into different modules and consisted of theory and field work. Formal lectures and more informal work-group discussions were alternated with exercises in the field. One 5 and one 6 day period were spent camping in the forest, doing recces and transect to collect data on elephants and other mammals. Most of the training material was based on the training manual edited by Lee White and Ann Edwards. Other training material was taken from different reports and proposed protocols and forms for the MIKE Pilot Phase. The need for methodological development as part of the MIKE pilot phase was also emphasised. The following training modules, relevant for MIKE were given:

CITES and MIKE: an introduction to CITES was given and the context of MIKE explained. Objectives of the programme were highlighted and the MIKE Pilot Project for Central Africa was presented, including its objectives, its hierarchical structure and place in the global MIKE programme, different functions involved, its calendar of activities, selection criteria for MIKE sites, survey design and some of the MIKE protocols. A general introduction was given on how to set research priorities and designing research programmes. Each participant had to read a publication, interpret and present it. 2/3rds of the publication were related to elephant research and monitoring. Navigation, maps. Trainees were given a theoretical background in navigation, maps, map projections, use of compass, triangulation and basic trigonometry for estimating height and distance. This was complemented with field work on the use of compasses, topofil and GPS. A whole day was spent on making a map of an area around the camp. Two orienteering courses, one with compass and one with GPS were also organised. Basic statistics, sampling design. Four days were spent on lectures and practical work on (mostly descriptive) statistics and sampling design (random, stratified sampling etc.). Monitoring illegal killing and relative abundance of elephants were highlighted and several options on how to design a monitoring programme for elephants and illegal killing in Central Africa were presented and discussed. A basic course in the use of computers, word processing and spreadsheets was given at different levels. Three laptops were continuously available for practice between and after training sessions. Basic field techniques were taught such as how to observe, taking notes, reading animal and human sign, describing habitat and vegetation, collecting plant samples, taking information from dead animals etc. A demonstration of a post-mortem examination on a goat was given by Dr. Billy Karesh from WCS. Line transect distance sampling was covered extensively mainly through exercises with real data. An experimental sampling exercise was done with a known density of rice grains along a transect. Five days were spent on practising cutting transects and sampling around the camp. Data were subsequently analysed using the programme Lopes which is a user-friendly and succinct version of Distance. Reconnaissance walks were also practised and data analysis of recce data versus transect data explained. Two periods of field exercises, one of five days and one of six days were spent camping in the forest, practising reconnaissance walks and transects. A method was being tested at the same time where long reconnaissance walks (1 km) were compared with short transects (200 m) A general introduction to Geographic Information Systems and how it could be used for the MIKE Central African Pilot project was given to a selected group of trainees with a higher educational background. This included the two candidates for National MIKE officers for Gabon and DRC. The last week of the training was spent on further analysis of the data and writing a report. Every field team of the camping trip had to write its own report. Some of the MIKE forms were presented at the training sessions, although in a rather general way since they had yet to be finalised. A short course (about two days) was given on first aid, emergency (wilderness) medicine and how to stay healthy in the forest.


1) GOAL of the course

To contribute to putting in place functional law enforcement and human-elephant conflict monitoring systems in all MIKE Pilot sites.

2) Specific OBJECTIVES of the course

To have trainees understand the Principles of Law Enforcement Monitoring (LEM) as these relate to Wildlife Protection in general, and MIKE in particular. To have trainees understand the Principles of monitoring Human-Elephant Conflict (HEC) and how these apply to MIKE. To analyse case studies of different forms of wildlife protection in Central Africa in relation to analyses of protection effort, actions taken, results and effect. To analyse case studies of human-elephant conflict and how these apply to MIKE. To provide MIKE Field Officers with principles to allow them to train Protected Area staff in LEM and HEC monitoring.

By the end of the Course, trainees will be expected to be able to:

Know the Principles of Law Enforcement monitoring, including measures of Protection Effort, and indicators of Results. Supervise and verify, in collaboration with Protected Area Managers, the collection of standardised information by guard patrols, including patrol de-briefing, patrol mapping and patrol report filing. Know how to measure Intelligence Gathering (Surveillance) Effort and Results. Know how to monitor Human-Elephant Conflict. Produce standardised field forms for their specific site conditions based on models provided by the course. Train patrol leaders and other relevant personnel in information recording. Consolidate and synthesise patrol information. Conduct preliminary analyses of Protection Effort and Results.


The field course will include:

Presentation of basic LEM and HEC theory and concepts, and applications to MIKE field programs. Presentation of Case Studies of Protected Area patrol data and Human Elephant conflict monitoring from Central African Protected Areas by trainees followed by group analysis. Review and discussion of MIKE field protocols. Field exercise in Lac Lobeke and vicinity. Trainees accompany patrols and HEC monitoring teams on field patrols. Final exercise: Preparation of field forms and protocols by trainees for their specific site, applying course principles. Evaluation of trainee projects.

All trainees who are members of project teams in the field are requested to bring pertinent patrol data, field and site maps, elephant conflict eports and other information to use in case study analyses.

Trainees not based in field sites will be requested to present an overview of their national elephant and anti-poaching programs for case study analysis.

Following the training session, it is planned that participants will attend the MINEF sponsored Quadri-national Elephant Strategy Workshop in Yokadouma (May 22-25).


1) Introduction

Introduce MIKE and CITES, and relate the MIKE objectives to LEM.

2) Principles I: Wildlife Protection and Law Enforcement

Examples of types of protection effort and factors relating to this: Forest versus savannah approaches; protected areas versus non-protected areas; Community conservation and Private Sector approaches. How is intelligence or surveillance used. Legal aspects and prosecutions, enforcement and reality of protected area laws, national laws and adherence to CITES. This aspect leads on to the ETIS trade monitoring programme, which will be mentioned.

3) Principles II Monitoring of Protection Effort

What is Protection Effort, including patrols and information gathering (Surveillance). How can Protection Effort be measured. Why an ability to measure and monitor law enforcement effort and results is important for MIKE in particular and elephant conservation in general. Use examples from different Law Enforcement Monitoring programmes.

4) Case reports: and Discussion.

What are different Protected Areas doing for Wildlife Protection and Human-Elephant Conflict? How can this be monitored? How is information collected, organised and utilised? How have strategies developed in relation to threats, needs and constraints? How have protection effort and results been measured? What indicators of illegal activity have been used? What has been the effect of Surveillance and Law Enforcement on rates of illegal activity? What have been the effects of HEC ?

Principles III. MIKE Law Enforcement Monitoring (LEM). Search Effort Indicators found Action taken Results

The basic principles of these parameters are the same for each site, but specifics will vary. It is proposed first to present a clear picture of what is meant by the parameters, then for each trainee to consider and define the specifics for their sites.

6) MIKE forms & protocols

A) LEM Forms and Protocols

Patrol forms and carcass form Intelligence information form Principles of patrol debriefing.

B) HEC Forms and Protocols

Village interviews and Human-Elephant Conflict form. Information Consolidation and Reporting Monthly and Annual report forms

Basic standardised forms will be presented, and will be fitted to specific site needs and conditions.

Field Exercise

Trainees will practice using the forms in a field situation, training field staff (patrol leaders) in their use, debriefing a patrol and consolidating and reporting the data.

Analysis and reporting

How are data used, analysed and reported?

Basic data consolidation Reporting to site manager, (Garamba model) Contribution to the site data base Patrol mapping (GIS maps will be mentioned but no GIS training here). Reporting to national Elephant Officers and analytical centre Modelling elephant distributions and numbers to protection effort. (Introduction to Jachmann’s and Bell’s models).

9) Training

Guidelines for training of guard patrol leaders by elephant officers.

Develop simple instructions applicable to their site

Develop quality controls applicable to their site.


The course will be taught by Dr. Kes Smith and Dr. John Hart.

Dr Kes Smith has almost 20 years experience in the Garamba National Park, RD Congo. With her husband, Fraser Smith, she has co-ordinated the effort to protect park’s unique mega-fauna, including the only population of Northern White Rhino, and one of the most significant populations of elephants in eastern DR Congo. Dr. smith has been a pioneer in developing Law Enforcement Monitoring protocols and applying these to management of Protected Areas.

Dr. John Hart is Co-ordinator for the Pilot MIKE.




Subject Unit





Introduction to the Course

Introduction to course
Daily schedule
Rules and Etiquette





CITES presentation




Principles I: Protection Effort and Law Enforcement

Examples of the types of protection, constraints., Protected vs Non-protected areas, Community conservation, education etc.




Principles II. Monitoring Protection Effort and Results.

Anti-Poaching introduction, Why and how to monitor it.



Matin & Ap-midi

Case reports and discussion

Garamba National Park


SE Cameroun

Tri-National/ZP region


National antipoaching programs




Case reports conclusion


Kes & John



Principles III. MIKE LEM

Principles defined, development of key indicator

Kes & John



MIKE LEM Field Forms and Protocols

Go over data forms and protocols, patrol debriefing

Kes & John



MIKE HEC Monitoring

Field Forms and Protocols




MIKE Intelligence Monitoring

Go over data forms and protocols

Kes & John



MIKE Reporting

Monthly and Annual site reports

Kes & John



Patrol leader training

Principles and examples of how to train patrol secretaries



Matin &

Analysis & Reporting-

Patrol data, maps, data consolidation & site reporting

Kes & John



Field Exercise: Introduction Planning

Objectives, reporting, functioning in the field

John & Kes



Field Exercise & Report

Trainees accompany local patrols or HEC monitoring, produce a field report




Final Exercise: Preparation of Site Forms

Trainees Prepare LEM and HEC forms for their site




Final Exercise 2.

Trainees present projects




To be determined




Course Evaluation





Closing and Departure



ANNEX 3. TRAINING 3. Gestion Données et Rapportage CITES.

Limbe Botanical Garden
le 6-14 décembre 2000

Objectifs organisation et traitement des données (recce-transects, patrouilles, informations sur éléphants et chasse) du projet MIKE rapportage des données et rapport de synthèse a CITES analyse et présentation des données au niveau local mise a jour des banques de données de site


Résultats attendus compréhension des logiciels utilisés (Windows, Excel, Word, Access, Distance, Arcview) saisir les données correctement sur formulaires et tableurs pour MIKE organisation des données pour analyse et transfert aux niveaux nationaux et cites rapportage trimestriel et annuel backup et transfert des données, formulaires et rapports par disquette, émail, …. analyse des données recce - transects avec Distance et saisir les résultats rapportage cartographique des données géographiques, socio-économiques, éléphants et écologiques


Module 1: Informatique

Niveau 1

Initiation a l'ordinateur et le système d'opération Notions essentielles sur Windows 1998

éléments de bureau,

poste de travail

travailler avec les fenêtres et les menus

gestion de fichiers, raccourcis

faire des backups

configuration clavier, souris, imprimante

gestion de date et heure

démarrer des programmes

rechercher des fichiers

installer des programmes

utilisation Winzip

Notions de base Excel

menu et barre d'outils

écran standard, classeur, feuille

saisir les données, colonnes, lignes


format lettres, cellules, etc.

calcules simples

trier les données (data sort)

enregistrer les fichiers, faire des backups

mise en page, imprimer

Notions de Word

Texte, format, règle, ruban

Rechercher, remplacer

Insérer des tableaux

Insérer des fichiers Excel, images

Mise en page, imprimer

Niveau 2

niveau 1 plus fonctions avancés Excel: calcules plus compliqués, fonctions intégrés base de données, filtre, graphiques, modèles Word: intégration Excel, Access et Word, modèles de documents Access: notions de base, tableurs, utilisation du menu et bar d'outils, saisir des données MIKE en Access. Email: envoyer, recevoir messages électroniques

Niveau 3

niveau 2 plus fonctions avancés principes des base de données base de données en Excel Access: fonctions plus avancés SIG: Arcview, lien avec Access (ODBC) Integration Arcview, Excel, Access et Word Utilisation du logiciel Distance


Module 2: Saisi des données discussion de l'utilisation des formulaires sur le terrain saisir les données sur formulaires saisi les données correctement en Excel saisi des données en Access démonstration CYBERTRACKER (avec Viktor Mbolo)


Module 3: Analyse des données évaluation de la qualité des données recce - transect et histogramme analyse distance données recce transect, notions du logiciel notions échantillonnage présentation analyse données


Module 4: Rapportage introduction formulaires MIKE/CITES exercice: remplir formulaires rapport trimestriel et annuel transfert des données (émail, diskette)


Module 5: Banque de données de site, données géographiques et SIG base de données géographique et socio-économique en Acces et Arcview utilisation des images satellitales pour la mise à jour de la banque de données intégration données recce-transect, patrouilles, informations éléphant et chasse dans le SIG (présentation) mise à jour de la banque de données des sites


Calendrier Provisoire

Jour 1


Arrivée, installation, administration

Discussion et présentation du programme

Inventaire du matériel, liste problèmes ordinateurs, logiciels etc.

Jour 2


Module 1

Evaluation niveaux et besoins participants en termes d'informatique (Didier) et traitement des données (Rene et John)

Création groupes de travail, Présentation données du terrain.

Jour 3


Module 2

"Troubleshooting" hardware et software (Eric Ngomo)

Installation logiciels (Eric Ngomo, Didier Mbanjok)

Jour 4


Module 3

Jour 5



Introduction distance, problèmes méthodologiques

Evaluation des données recce-transects

Jour 6


Module 4

Introduction rapport trimestriel et annuel

Exercice sur formulaires et rapports MIKE

Jour 7


Module 5, SIG

Mise à jour banque de données de site

Jour 8


Exercices en groupes de travail

Fête (soirée)

Jour 9


Résumé et Evaluation

Programme de suite

ANNEX 4. Results of Trainee Evaluation of TRAINING 2.

(Law Enforcement Monitoring, Lobeke, Cmaeroun, May 2000).

The table gives results of 22 responses to an evaluation questionnaire provided at the end of the training session. I provide a summary in the Note column


Une évaluation de l’atelier sera fait par les participants. L’objectif de l’évaluation est de fournir une information permettant les modifications et les amélioration des modules et une meilleure planning des prochains ateliers et stages et de formation à l’avenir.

Veuillez indiquer avec un "X" votre appréciation de chaque élément de l’atelier. Fournissez aussi une note d’explication.

Elément de l’Atelier

Très utile
Très bien


Peu utile ou



Camp (logement)




Some people did not like the field setting

Hangar de Classe




Accommodations too rudimentary





Lots of food. Some wanted more beer






Some asked for more detail

Cas d’Etudes




Everyone appreciated discussion of real case studies from the region

Fiches / Protocols




A few thought these too complex

Exercise de Terrain




Application of the training was much appreciated.

Exercise Finale




Some people did not likethe idea of being tested


Présentation de matériel




Problems included materials not done on time, language difficulties

Participation des stagaires




Most wanted more time for question and answer. Several stagaires gave their own presentations , much appreciated.





Not enough time for this

Votre compréhension des modules




Most people thought they understood LEM at the end of the course