RECOGNIZING that wild fauna and flora are used in many forms of traditional medicine and that continued and uncontrolled use of several endangered species in traditional medicine has been the subject of concern among range States and consumer countries in view of the potential threat to the long-term survival of these species and the development of traditional medicines on a sustainable basis;
RECOGNIZING that most traditional-medicine systems in East Asia were derived from traditional Chinese medicine which is a rational system of thought and practice developed over several millennia and involving extensive clinical observation and testing;
AWARE that the World Health Organization has acknowledged the importance of traditional medicines to the world’s medicinal security and that millions of people depend on these medicines for primary health care;
CONVINCED of the need to improve understanding about the significance of traditional medicines in the world’s health care systems whilst addressing the problems of over-exploitation of certain wild species;
ACKNOWLEDGING that many forms of traditional medicine depend on the sustainable harvesting of wild species;
RECALLING Resolution Conf. 9.19 (Rev. CoP15)1, adopted by the Conference of the Parties at its ninth meeting (Fort Lauderdale, 1994) and amended at its 13th meeting (Bangkok, 2004) and 15th (Doha, 2010) meetings, which acknowledges that pressure on wild populations may be relieved by captive breeding and artificial propagation;
RECOGNIZING the importance of research into the use of substitutes for specimens of endangered species;
BELIEVING that adequate measures should be taken to conserve wild species at risk of over-exploitation to avoid their becoming threatened to the point where more severe measures may be necessary as in the case of the rhinoceroses and the tiger;
NOTING that the total volume of traditional medicines traded as personal effects under Article VII, paragraph 3, of the Convention may have a negative impact on the conservation of certain species;
CONVINCED of the importance of comprehensive national legislation and its effective enforcement for the implementation of the Convention in all party States;
RECALLING that Resolutions Conf. 9.14 (Rev. CoP15)2, adopted by the Conference of the Parties at its ninth meeting and amended at its 14th meeting (The Hague, 2007) and 15th meetings, Conf. 10.8 (Rev. CoP14), adopted at its 10th meeting (Harare, 1997) and amended at its 12th (Santiago, 2002) and 14th meetings, Conf. 11.7, adopted at its 11th meeting (Gigiri, 2000) and Conf. 12.5 (Rev. CoP15)3, adopted at its 12th meeting and amended at its 15th meeting, refer to various measures to be taken in relation to the conservation of and trade in specific taxa commonly encountered as ingredients in traditional medicines;
THE CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES TO THE CONVENTION
RECOMMENDS that the Parties:
a) work closely with groups of traditional-medicine practitioners and consumers in developing public education and awareness programmes towards the elimination of illegal use of endangered species, and developing awareness of the need to avoid over-exploitation of other wild species;
b) promote the development of techniques, including the application of forensic science, for identifying parts and derivatives used in traditional medicines;
c) facilitate, encourage and investigate the further use in traditional medicines of alternative ingredients to specimens of threatened wild species, such as synthetic compounds and derivatives of less threatened species, ensuring that this does not lead to other species becoming threatened; and
d) consider, where appropriate and with sufficient safeguards, the application of artificial propagation and, in certain circumstances, captive breeding, to meet the needs of traditional medicines where this would relieve pressure on wild populations of species and is in accordance with their national legislation;
URGES Parties to ensure that traditional medicines intended for domestic use are clearly marked as such and effectively prevented from being exported;
URGES Parties to ensure that Article VII, paragraph 3, of the Convention is implemented fully and consistently in relation to traditional medicines, to ensure that traditional medicines containing Appendix-I ingredients are not exported by tourists and visitors unless accompanied by appropriate documentation;
ACKNOWLEDGES that in order to effectively protect listed species that are commonly encountered as ingredients in traditional medicines, it may be necessary for Parties to apply stricter domestic measures in relation to personal and household effects; and
URGES potential donors to assist with funding actions to implement the measures in this Resolution.
* Amended at the 12th and 14th meetings of the Conference of the Parties, and corrected by the Secretariat following the 15th meeting.
1 Corrected by the Secretariat following the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties: originally referred to Resolution Conf. 9.19 (Rev. CoP13).
2 Corrected by the Secretariat following the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties: originally referred to Resolution Conf. 9.14 (Rev. CoP14).
3 Corrected by the Secretariat following the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties: originally referred to Resolution Conf. 12.5.